Post by Herbert Blenner on Jan 20, 2019 19:09:23 GMT -5
Bye Bye Jacket Bulge
by Herbert Blenner | Posted May 4, 2011
The first diagram of Gregory Exhibit No. 1 enables calculation of the sagittal angle between a straight line joining Governor Connally’s torso wounds and the sagittal plane of his body as a brow raising eleven degrees. During the early Z-220s the forward direction of the limousine would have made a 11-degree lateral angle with the trajectory of a bullet fired from the sniper's nest. This coincidence of the sagittal with the lateral angle requires that Connally was facing directly forward if transited by a bullet on a straight course.
Viewing Connally's back and chest wounds from above show that their locations in the plane of view are consistent with a bullet fired from behind and slightly to the right of the victim. The following graphic shows this situation.
Figure 1 - Facing Forward
Point B represents the inshoot on Connally's back and point C marks the outshoot on his chest. The straight line BC denotes the wound track made by a bullet without deflection. Line segment AB shows the incoming trajectory and the outgoing trajectory is indicated by line segment CD. The straight line AD makes an angle h with the forward direction of the limousine shown as line segment OL. Line segment BF represents a parasagittal plane of the body and makes angle s with the direction of the transiting bullet.
Facing Forward differs from the usual diagram showing Connally's torso wounds. Normally they align the vertical with the forward direction of the limousine and show the trajectory of the bullet as upward and slightly to the left. Instead of using the direction of the limousine as a reference, Facing Forward takes the direction of the incoming bullet as its reference. So the direction of the bullet is upward and the direction of the limousine is upward and slightly to the right. I invite readers who are uncomfortable with the appearance of Facing Forward to rotate the graphic so that OL becomes vertical and observe that the angular relationships do not change.
The advantages of using the direction of the incoming bullet as a reference direction and placing the origin of the coordinate system at Connally's center of rotation becomes obvious when considering the effect of the considerable right turn of the torso upon the trajectory of a bullet that connected the inshoot and the outshoot.
If Connally were facing forward then the straight line joining his wounds, BC, would have made a zero degree angle with the direction of the incoming bullet, AB. Rotation of his torso did not change the direction of the incoming bullet nor the locations of the inshoot and the outshoot. So the trajectory of the incoming bullet makes an angle b with the straight line joining his wounds. This angle b conveniently measures the rotation of Connally's torso from facing straight ahead since angle h equals angle s.
Researchers disagree on the magnitude of Connally's rightward rotation on any given frame of the Zapruder film. So rather than invite quibbling by assigning a disputable value to the rotation angle b, I choose to use a variable that can have any value.
Figure 2 - Turned to his Right
A rotated torso necessitates deflection of the transiting bullet by an angle larger than the rotation angle b. This situation arises since the bullet cannot follow the path of A to B, undergo an instantaneous deflection and continue toward the outshoot along the path of B to C. Instead the bullet gradually turns toward the exit and emerges at a deflection angle larger than the rotation angle.